jeudi 19 octobre 2017

An Atmosphere Around the Moon? NASA Research Suggests Significant Atmosphere in Lunar Past and Possible Source of Lunar Water














NASA - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) patch / NASA - Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) logo.

Oct. 19, 2017

An Atmosphere Around the Moon? Image Credits: NASA/MSFC

Looking up at the Moon at night, Earth’s closest neighbor appears in shades of gray and white; a dry desert in the vacuum of space, inactive and dead for billions of years. Like many things, though, with the Moon, there is so much more than what meets the eye.

Research completed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center planetary volcanologist Debra Needham in Huntsville, Alabama, and planetary scientist David Kring at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas, suggests that billions of years ago, the Moon actually had an atmosphere. The ancient lunar atmosphere was thicker than the atmosphere of Mars today and was likely capable of weathering rocks and producing windstorms. Perhaps most importantly, it could be a source for some, if not all, of the water detected on the Moon.

“It just completely changes the way we think of the Moon,” said Needham, a scientist in Marshall’s Science and Technology Office. “It becomes a much more dynamic planetary body to explore.”

Needham will present the research at the annual Geological Society of America conference in Seattle on Oct. 22. The research paper, available online, will be published in the Nov. 15 issue of Earth and Planetary Science Letters.


Images above: A time sequence of lunar mare -- lava plain -- flows in 0.5 billion year time increments, with red areas in each time step denoting the most recently erupted lavas. The timing of the eruptions, along with how much lava was erupted, helped scientists determine that the Moon once had an atmosphere and that the lunar atmosphere was thickest about 3.5 billion years ago. Image Credits: NASA/MSFC/Debra Needham; Lunar and Planetary Science Institute/David Kring.

Discovering the existence, thickness and composition of the atmosphere began with understanding how much lava erupted on the Moon 3.9 to one billion years ago, forming the lava plains we see as the dark areas on the surface of the Moon today. Needham and Kring then used lab analyses of lunar basalts -- iron and magnesium-rich volcanic rocks -- returned to Earth by the Apollo crews to estimate the amounts and composition of gases -- also called volatiles -- released during those volcanic eruptions.

The short-lived atmosphere -- estimated to have lasted approximately 70 million years -- was comprised primarily of carbon monoxide, sulfur and water. As volcanic activity declined, the release of the gases also declined. What atmosphere existed was either lost to space or became part of the surface of the Moon.

The researchers discovered that so much water was released during the eruptions -- potentially three times the amount of water in the Chesapeake Bay -- that if 0.1 percent of the erupted water migrated to the permanently shadowed regions on the Moon, it could account for all of the water detected there.

“We’re suggesting that internally-sourced volatiles might be at least contributing factors to these potential in-situ resource utilization deposits,” Needham said.


Image above: The color mosaic of the Moon’s north pole gives a small glimpse into the complex, dynamic past of Earth’s nearest celestial neighbor. Image Credits: NASA/JPL/USGS.

Water is one of the keys to living off of the land in space, also called in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Knowing where the water came from helps scientists and mission planners alike know if the resource is renewable. Ultimately, more research is needed to determine the exact sources.

The first indication of water on the Moon came in 1994 when NASA’s Clementine spacecraft detected potential signatures of water-ice in the lunar poles. In 1998, NASA’s Lunar Prospector mission detected enhanced hydrogen signatures but could not definitely associate them to water. Ten years later, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and its partner spacecraft, the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), definitively confirmed the presence of water on the Moon. That same year, in 2008, volcanic glass beads brought back from the Moon by the Apollo 15 and 17 crews were discovered to contain volatiles, including water, leading to the research that indicates the Moon once had a significant atmosphere and was once much different than what we see today.

Casting one’s eyes at the Moon or viewing it through a telescope, the surface of the Moon today gives but a glimpse into its dynamic and complex history. Recent findings that propose Earth’s neighbor once had an atmosphere comparable to Mars’ continue to unravel the lunar past, while prompting scientists and explorers to ask more questions about Earth’s mysterious companion in the solar system.

To learn more about Marshall’s lunar and planetary science research visit: https://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/solarsystem.html

To learn more about NASA’s research for solar system exploration visit: https://sservi.nasa.gov/

Related links:

Nov. 15 issue of Earth and Planetary Science Letters: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012821X17304971?via%3Dihub

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/LRO/main/index.html

Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/LCROSS/main/

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center: https://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/home/index.html

Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center/William Bryan.

Greetings, Orbiter.ch

Deep Space Communications via Faraway Photons












NASA - Psyche Mission logo.

October 19, 2017

A spacecraft destined to explore a unique asteroid will also test new communication hardware that uses lasers instead of radio waves.

The Deep Space Optical Communications (DSOC) package aboard NASA's Psyche mission utilizes photons -- the fundamental particle of visible light -- to transmit more data in a given amount of time. The DSOC goal is to increase spacecraft communications performance and efficiency by 10 to 100 times over conventional means, all without increasing the mission burden in mass, volume, power and/or spectrum.


Image above: Artist's concept of the Psyche spacecraft, which will conduct a direct exploration of an asteroid thought to be a stripped planetary core. Image Credits: SSL/ASU/P. Rubin/NASA/JPL-Caltech.

Tapping the advantages offered by laser communications is expected to revolutionize future space endeavors - a major objective of NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD).

The DSOC project is developing key technologies that are being integrated into a deep space-worthy Flight Laser Transceiver (FLT), high-tech work that will advance this mode of communications to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6. Reaching a TRL 6 level equates to having technology that is a fully functional prototype or representational model.

As a "game changing" technology demonstration, DSOC is exactly that. NASA STMD's Game Changing Development Program funded the technology development phase of DSOC. The flight demonstration is jointly funded by STMD, the Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) Program and NASA/ HEOMD/Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN).

Work on the laser package is based at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

"Things are shaping up reasonably and we have a considerable amount of test activity going on," says Abhijit Biswas, DSOC Project Technologist in Flight Communications Systems at JPL. Delivery of DSOC for integration within the Psyche mission is expected in 2021 with the spacecraft launch to occur in the summer of 2022, he explains.

"Think of the DSOC flight laser transceiver onboard Psyche as a telescope," Biswas explains, able to receive and transmit laser light in precisely timed photon bursts.

DSOC architecture is based on transmitting a laser beacon from Earth to assist line­of­sight stabilization to make possible the pointing back of a downlink laser beam. The laser onboard the Psyche spacecraft, Biswas says, is based on a master-oscillator power amplifier that uses optical fibers.

The laser beacon to DSOC will be transmitted from JPL's Table Mountain Facility located near the town of Wrightwood, California, in the Angeles National Forest. DSOC's beaming of data from space will be received at a large aperture ground telescope at Palomar Mountain Observatory in California, near San Diego.

Biswas anticipates operating DSOC perhaps 60 days after launch, given checkout of the Psyche spacecraft post-liftoff. The test-runs of the laser equipment will occur over distances of 0.1 to 2.5 astronomical units (AU) on the outward-bound probe. One AU is approximately 150 million kilometers-or the distance between the Earth and Sun.

"I am very excited to be on the mission," says Biswas, who has been working on the laser communications technology since the late 1990s. "It's a unique privilege to be working on DSOC."

The Psyche mission was selected for flight in early 2017 under NASA's Discovery Program, a series of lower-cost, highly focused robotic space missions that are exploring the solar system.

The spacecraft will be launched in the summer of 2022 to 16 Psyche, a distinctive metal asteroid about three times farther away from the sun than Earth. The planned arrival of the probe at the main belt asteroid will take place in 2026.

Lindy Elkins-Tanton is Director of the School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University in Tempe. She is the principal investigator for the Psyche mission.

"I am thrilled that Psyche is getting to fly the Deep Space Optical Communications package," Elkins-Tanton says. "First of all, the technology is mind-blowing and it brings out all my inner geek. Who doesn't want to communicate using lasers, and multiply the amount of data we can send back and forth?"

Elkins-Tanton adds that bringing robotic and human spaceflight closer together is critical for humankind's space future. "Having our robotic mission test technology that we hope will help us eventually communicate with people in deep space is excellent integration of NASA missions and all of our goals," she says.

In designing a simple, high-heritage spacecraft to do the exciting exploration of the metal world Psyche, "I find both the solar electric propulsion and the Deep Space Optical Communications to feel futuristic in the extreme. I'm proud of NASA and of our technical community for making this possible," Elkins-Tanton concludes.

Biswas explains that DSOC is a pathfinder experiment. The future is indeed bright for the technology, he suggests, such as setting up capable telecommunications infrastructure around Mars


Animation above: Laser communications conceptual animation. An animated concept of Deep Space Optical Communications (DSOC) between Mars and Earth. Animation Credit: NASA.

"Doing so would allow the support of astronauts going to and eventually landing on Mars," Biswas said. "Laser communications will augment that capability tremendously. The ability to send back from Mars to Earth lots of information, including the streaming of high definition imagery, is going to be very enabling."

As a "game changing" technology demonstration, DSOC is exactly that. NASA STMD's Game Changing Development program funded the technology development phase of DSOC. The flight demonstration is jointly funded by STMD, the Technology Demonstration Missions (TDM) program and NASA/ HEOMD/Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN). Work on the laser package is based at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

For more information about NASA's Technology Demonstration Missions program, visit: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/tdm/main/index.html

For more information about NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/spacetech

NASA's Psyche mission: https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/psyche/

Deep Space Optical Communications (DSOC): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/tdm/dsoc/index.html

Image (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Gina Anderson/JPL/Andrew Good/Written by Leonard.

Greetings, Orbiter.ch

mercredi 18 octobre 2017

NASA Team Finds Noxious Ice Cloud on Saturn’s Moon Titan












NASA - Cassini Mission to Saturn patch.

Oct. 18, 2017

Researchers with NASA’s Cassini mission found evidence of a toxic hybrid ice in a wispy cloud high above the south pole of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan.

The finding is a new demonstration of the complex chemistry occurring in Titan’s atmosphere—in this case, cloud formation in the giant moon’s stratosphere—and part of a collection of processes that ultimately helps deliver a smorgasbord of organic molecules to Titan’s surface.


Image above: This view of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, is among the last images the Cassini spacecraft sent to Earth before it plunged into the giant planet’s atmosphere. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute.

Invisible to the human eye, the cloud was detected at infrared wavelengths by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer, or CIRS, on the Cassini spacecraft. Located at an altitude of about 100 to 130 miles (160 to 210 kilometers), the cloud is far above the methane rain clouds of Titan’s troposphere, or lowest region of the atmosphere. The new cloud covers a large area near the south pole, from about 75 to 85 degrees south latitude.

Laboratory experiments were used to find a chemical mixture that matched the cloud’s spectral signature -- the chemical fingerprint measured by the CIRS instrument. The experiments determined that the exotic ice in the cloud is a combination of the simple organic molecule hydrogen cyanide together with the large ring-shaped chemical benzene. The two chemicals appear to have condensed at the same time to form ice particles, rather than one being layered on top of the other.

“This cloud represents a new chemical formula of ice in Titan’s atmosphere,” said Carrie Anderson of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, a CIRS co-investigator. “What’s interesting is that this noxious ice is made of two molecules that condensed together out of a rich mixture of gases at the south pole.”

Previously, CIRS data helped identify hydrogen cyanide ice in clouds over Titan's south pole, as well as other toxic chemicals in the moon's stratosphere.

In Titan’s stratosphere, a global circulation pattern sends a current of warm gases from the hemisphere where it’s summer to the winter pole. This circulation reverses direction when the seasons change, leading to a buildup of clouds at whichever pole is experiencing winter. Shortly after its arrival at Saturn, Cassini found evidence of this phenomenon at Titan’s north pole. Later, near the end of the spacecraft’s 13 years in the Saturn system, a similar cloud buildup was spotted at the south pole.

The simple way to think about the cloud structure is that different types of gas will condense into ice clouds at different altitudes, almost like layers in a parfait dessert. Exactly which cloud condenses where depends on how much vapor is present and on the temperatures, which become colder and colder at lower altitudes in the stratosphere. The reality is more complicated, however, because each type of cloud forms over a range of altitudes, so it’s possible for some ices to condense simultaneously, or co-condense.

Anderson and colleagues use CIRS to sort through the complex set of infrared fingerprints from many molecules in Titan’s atmosphere. The instrument separates infrared light into its component colors, like raindrops creating a rainbow, and measures the strengths of the signal at the different wavelengths.

“CIRS acts as a remote-sensing thermometer and as a chemical probe, picking out the heat radiation emitted by individual gases in an atmosphere,” said F. Michael Flasar, the CIRS principal investigator at Goddard. “And the instrument does it all remotely, while passing by a planet or moon.”

The new cloud, which the researchers call the high-altitude south polar cloud, has a distinctive and very strong chemical signature that showed up in three sets of Titan observations taken from July to November 2015. Because Titan’s seasons last seven Earth years, it was late fall at the south pole the whole time.

The spectral signatures of the ices did not match those of any individual chemical, so the team began laboratory experiments to simultaneously condense mixtures of gases. Using an ice chamber that simulates conditions in Titan’s stratosphere, they tested pairs of chemicals that had infrared fingerprints in the right part of the spectrum.

At first, they let one gas condense before the other. But the best result was achieved by introducing both hydrogen cyanide and benzene into the chamber and allowing them to condense at the same time. By itself, benzene doesn’t have a distinctive far-infrared fingerprint. When it was allowed to co-condense with hydrogen cyanide, however, the far-infrared fingerprint of the co-condensed ice was a close match for the CIRS observations.

Artist's view of Cassini Titan flyby. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Additional studies will be needed to determine the structure of the co-condensed ice particles. The researchers expect them to be lumpy and disorderly, rather than well-defined crystals.

Anderson and colleagues previously found a similar example of co-condensed ice in CIRS data from 2005. Those observations were made near the north pole, about two years after the winter solstice in Titan’s northern hemisphere. That cloud formed at a much lower altitude, below 93 miles (150 kilometers), and had a different chemical composition: hydrogen cyanide and cyanoacetylene, one of the more complex organic molecules found in Titan’s atmosphere.

Anderson attributes the differences in the two clouds to seasonal variations at the north and south poles. The northern cloud was spotted about two years after the northern winter solstice, but the southern cloud was spotted about two years before the southern winter solstice. It’s possible that the mixtures of gases were slightly different in the two cases or that temperatures had warmed up a bit by the time the north polar cloud was spotted, or both.

“One of the advantages of Cassini was that we were able to flyby Titan again and again over the course of the thirteen-year mission to see changes over time,” said Anderson. “This is a big part of the value of a long-term mission.”

The Cassini spacecraft ended its Saturn mission on Sept. 15, 2017.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Italian Space Agency. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter.

More information about Cassini:

https://www.nasa.gov/cassini

https://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov

http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Cassini-Huygens

Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Karl Hille/Goddard Space Flight Center/Elizabeth Zubritsky.

Greetings, Orbiter.ch

Solar Eruptions Could Electrify Martian Moons














NASA - Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) patch / ESA & NASA - SOHO Mission patch.

Oct. 18, 2017

Powerful solar eruptions could electrically charge areas of the Martian moon Phobos to hundreds of volts, presenting a complex electrical environment that could possibly affect sensitive electronics carried by future robotic explorers, according to a new NASA study. The study also considered electrical charges that could develop as astronauts transit the surface on potential human missions to Phobos.

video
Solar Wind at Martian Moon Could Impact Future Missions

Video above: The Martian moon Phobos is directly exposed to the solar wind, a stream of electrically charged particles constantly blowing off the surface of the Sun. According to a new simulation, the interaction of the solar wind with Phobos creates a complex electrical environment that statically charges the moon's night side. Video Credits: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/CI Lab.

Phobos has been considered as a possible initial base for human exploration of Mars because its weak gravity makes it easier to land spacecraft, astronauts and supplies. The idea would be to have the astronauts control robots on the Martian surface from the moons of Mars, without the considerable time delay faced by Earth-based operators. “We found that astronauts or rovers could accumulate significant electric charges when traversing the night side of Phobos – the side facing Mars during the Martian day,” said William Farrell of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland. “While we don’t expect these charges to be large enough to injure an astronaut, they are potentially large enough to affect sensitive equipment, so we would need to design spacesuits and equipment that minimizes any charging hazard.” Farrell is lead author of a paper on this research published online Oct. 3 in Advances in Space Research.


Image above: The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter took two images of the larger of Mars' two moons, Phobos, within 10 minutes of each other on March 23, 2008. This is the first. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona.

Mars has two small moons, Phobos and Deimos. Although this study focused on Phobos, similar conditions are expected at Deimos, since both moons have no atmosphere and are directly exposed to the solar wind – a stream of electrically conducting gas, called a plasma, that’s constantly blowing off the surface of the Sun into space at around a million miles per hour.

The solar wind is responsible for these charging effects. When the solar wind strikes the day side of Phobos, the plasma is absorbed by the surface. This creates a void on the night side of Phobos that the plasma flow is obstructed from directly entering. However, the composition of the wind – made of two types of electrically charged particles, namely ions and electrons – affects the flow. The electrons are over a thousand times lighter than the ions. “The electrons act like fighter jets – they are able to turn quickly around an obstacle -- and the ions are like big, heavy bombers – they change direction slowly,” said Farrell. “This means the light electrons push in ahead of the heavy ions and the resulting electric field forces the ions into the plasma void behind Phobos, according to our models.”

The study shows that this plasma void behind Phobos may create a situation where astronauts and rovers build up significant electric charges. For example, if astronauts were to walk across the night-side surface, friction could transfer charge from the dust and rock on the surface to their spacesuits. This dust and rock is a very poor conductor of electricity, so the charge can’t flow back easily into the surface -- and charge starts to build up on the spacesuits. On the day side, the electrically conducting solar wind and solar ultraviolet radiation can remove the excess charge on the suit. But, on the night side, the ion and electron densities in the trailing plasma void are so low they cannot compensate or ‘dissipate’ the charge build-up. The team’s calculations revealed that this static charge can reach ten thousand volts in some materials, like the Teflon suits used in the Apollo lunar missions. If the astronaut then touches something conductive, like a piece of equipment, this could release the charge, possibly similar to the discharge you get when you shuffle across a carpet and touch a metal door handle.

The team modeled the flow of the solar wind around Phobos and calculated the buildup of charge on the night side, as well as in obstructed regions in shadow, like Stickney crater, the largest crater on Phobos. “We found that excess charge builds up in these regions during all solar wind conditions, but the charging effect was especially severe in the wake of solar eruptions like coronal mass ejections, which are dense, fast gusts of solar wind,” said Farrell.


Image above: This picture, captured on Jan. 8, 2002 by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, shows an enormous eruption of solar material, called a coronal mass ejection, spreading out into space. Image Credits: ESA/NASA/SOHO.

This study was a follow-up to earlier studies that revealed the charging effects of solar wind in shadowed craters on Earth’s Moon and near-Earth asteroids. Some conditions on Phobos are different than those in the earlier studies. For example, Phobos gets immersed in the plasma flowing behind Mars because it orbits Mars much closer than the Moon orbits Earth. The plasma flow behind Mars’ orbit was modeled as well.

The research was funded by Goddard’s Dynamic Response of the Environment at Asteroids, the Moon, and moons of Mars (DREAM2) center, as well as the Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), based and managed at NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California.

SSERVI is a virtual institute that, together with international partnerships, brings science and exploration researchers together in a collaborative virtual setting. SSERVI is funded by the Science Mission Directorate and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington.

Related links:

Advances in Space Research article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2017.08.009

Space Weather: https://www.nasa.gov/subject/3165/space-weather

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO): http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/MRO/main/index.html

Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/soho/overview/index.html

Images (mentioned), Video, Text, Credits: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/Bill Steigerwald/Nancy Jones.

Greetings, Orbiter.ch

Weekly Recap From the Expedition Lead Scientist, week of October 9, 2017












ISS - Expedition 53 Mission patch.

Oct. 18, 2017

International Space Station (ISS). Animation Credit: NASA

(Highlights: Week of October 9, 2017) - Preparation for combustion experiments, samples for immune function studies, and tests of movement control and cognition were part of the science conducted aboard the International Space Station during another week that included a spacewalk.

European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli worked on reconfiguring the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) ahead of the upcoming Advanced Combustion via Microgravity Experiments (ACME) investigation. The CIR is used to perform combustion experiments in microgravity. The Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) Chamber Insert Assembly (CIA) from the CIR combustion chamber was removed for the final time, and was replaced by the ACME chamber insert. The ACME investigation is a set of five independent studies of gaseous flames to be conducted in the CIR. ACME’s primary goal is to improve fuel efficiency and reduce pollutant production in practical combustion on Earth. Its secondary goal is to improve spacecraft fire prevention through innovative research focused on materials flammability.


Image above: European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Paolo Nespoli works on reconfiguring the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) ahead of the upcoming Advanced Combustion via Microgravity Experiments (ACME) investigation. Image Credit: NASA.

Astronauts also collected samples for the Multi-omics analysis of human microbial-metabolic cross-talk in the space ecosystem (Multi-Omics) investigation this week. It has been suggested that living aboard the orbiting laboratory likely causes immune dysfunction in astronauts, but the precise underlying mechanisms for this dysfunction is not well understood. Recent studies have indicated that an imbalance in gut microbiota composition, or dysbiosis, resulting from a variety of environmental stresses, could lead to immune dysfunction. Therefore, metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiota from astronauts should result in better understanding of the immune dysfunction of crew members on the space station. Multi-Omics could identify candidates of bacterial and/or metabolic biomarkers for immune dysfunction which could be useful for the health management of astronauts.

Crew members set up the Spaceflight Effects on Neurocognitive Performance: Extent, Longevity, and Neural Bases (NeuroMapping) hardware, and performed their Flight Day 30 tests in “strapped in” and “free floating” body configurations. During the test, the astronauts executed three behavioral assessments: mental rotation, sensorimotor adaptation and motor-cognitive dual tasking. The NeuroMapping investigation studies whether long-duration spaceflight causes changes to brain structure and function, motor control or multi-tasking abilities. It also measures how long it takes for the brain and body to recover from possible changes. Previous research and anecdotal evidence from astronauts suggests movement control and cognition can be affected in microgravity. The NeuroMapping investigation performs structural and functional magnetic resonance brain imaging (MRI and fMRI) to assess any changes that occur after spending months on the space station.


Image above: NASA astronaut Joe Acaba configured the back of the Optics Bench for the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) upgrades, in preparation for the ACE-T-6 investigation. Image Credit: NASA.

While physical changes in astronauts’ bodies were studied, so too were changes in the crew’s culture. The Canadian Space Agency investigation, Culture, Values, and Environmental Adaptation in Space (At Home in Space), assesses culture, values, and psychosocial adaptation of astronauts to a space environment shared by multinational crews on long-duration missions. It is hypothesized that astronauts develop a shared space culture that is an adaptive strategy for handling cultural differences, and that they deal with the isolated confined environment of the spacecraft by creating a home in space. At Home In Space uses a questionnaire battery to investigate individual and culturally-related differences, family functioning, values, coping with stress and post-experience growth.

Potential benefits of this work include a better understanding of the inter- and intrapersonal factors that may affect long space missions, which may ultimately facilitate the development of more effective countermeasures and empowerment strategies for long-duration missions. Other benefits would be the design of effective procedures to enhance crew feeling at home in space. Findings could also have applications to people living in remote, confined, and isolated environments (e.g., oil rigs, long-voyage tankers, and the Arctic and Antarctic), and to those whose employment requires periodic absences from family (e.g., military deployments).

video
Space to Ground: Quick Work: 10/13/2017

Video above: NASA's Space to Ground is your weekly update on what's happening aboard the International Space Station. Video Credit: NASA.

Progress was also made on the following investigations last week: Fine Motor Skills, Veg-03, Lighting Effects, Space Headaches, ISS Ham Radio, Advanced Nano Step, Plasma Kristall-4, Biochemical Profile and ACE-T-6.

Related links:

Expedition 53: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition53/index.html

Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/326.html

Advanced Combustion via Microgravity Experiments (ACME): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1908.html

Multi-Omics: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1949.html#top

NeuroMapping: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1007.html

At Home in Space: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1988.html

Fine Motor Skills: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1767.html

Veg-03: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1294.html

Lighting Effects: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/2279.html

Space Headaches: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/181.html

ISS Ham Radio: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/346.html

Advanced Nano Step: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/783.html

Plasma Kristall-4: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1343.html

Biochemical Profile: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1008.html

ACE-T-6: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1968.html

Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html

International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html

Animation (mentioned), Images (mentioned), Video (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Erling. G. Holm/John Love, Lead Increment Scientist Expeditions 53 & 54.

Best regards, Orbiter.ch

mardi 17 octobre 2017

Astronauts Prep for Spacewalk and Check Science Gear












ISS - Expedition 53 Mission patch.

October 17, 2017

International Space Station (ISS). Image Credit: NASA

Two NASA astronauts are getting ready to go on their mission’s third spacewalk on Friday. In the midst of those preparations, the Expedition 53 crew also worked on science gear exploring a wide variety of space phenomena.

Commander Randy Bresnik is preparing to go on the third spacewalk this month with NASA astronaut Joe Acaba. Astronauts Paolo Nespoli and Mark Vande Hei will assist the spacewalking duo in and out of their spacesuits on Friday.

The spacewalkers will replace a camera light on the Canadarm2’s newly-installed Latching End Effector and install a high-definition camera on the starboard truss. Other tasks include the replacement of a fuse on Dextre’s payload platform and the removal of thermal insulation on two electrical spare parts housed on stowage platforms.


Image above: Astronaut Mark Vande Hei is pictured tethered to the outside of the U.S. Destiny laboratory module during a spacewalk on Oct. 10, 2017. Image Credit: NASA.

Bresnik started his day working on a specialized camera that photograph’s meteors entering the Earth’s atmosphere. Acaba finally wrapped up the day configuring a microscope inside the Fluids Integrated Rack.

Nespoli, from the European Space Agency, set up the new Mini-Exercise Device-2 (MED-2) for a workout session today. Researchers are exploring the MED-2 for its ability to provide effective workouts while maximizing space aboard a spacecraft.

Related links:

Expedition 53: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition53/index.html

Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html

International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html

Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia.

Greetings, Orbiter.ch

Webcam on Mars Express surveys high-altitude clouds












ESA - Mars Express Mission patch.

17 October 2017

An unprecedented catalogue of more than 21 000 images taken by a webcam on ESA’s Mars Express is proving its worth as a science instrument, providing a global survey of unusual high-altitude cloud features on the Red Planet.

Cloud over Mars

The low-resolution camera was originally installed on Mars Express for visual confirmation that the Beagle-2 lander had separated in 2003. In 2007 it was switched back on and used primarily for outreach, education and citizen science, with images automatically posted to a dedicated Flickr page, sometimes within just 75 minutes of being taken at Mars.

Last year, with new software, the camera was adopted as a supporting science instrument. Now, the first paper has been published, on detached, high-altitude cloud features and dust storms over the edge, or ‘limb’, of the planet.

While these limb clouds can be imaged by other instruments or spacecraft, it is not necessarily their main task – they are usually looking directly at the surface with a narrow field of view that covers a small portion of the planet for specialised study. By contrast, the webcam often has a global view of the full limb.

“For this reason, limb observations in general are not so numerous, and this is why our images are so valuable in contributing to our understanding of atmospheric phenomena,” says Agustin Sánchez-Lavega, lead author of the study from the University del Pais Vasco in Bilbao, Spain.

“Combining with models and other datasets we were able to gain a better insight to understanding atmospheric transport and seasonal variations that play a role in generating the high-altitude cloud features.”

Cloud structures over Mars

The catalogue of some 21 000 images taken between 2007 and 2016 were examined and 300 identified for the study.

Multiple images separated by a few minutes each were obtained for 18 events as they rotated into view, providing visual documentation of the features from different perspectives.

In general, the cloud features imaged by the camera have peak altitudes in the range of 50–80 km above the planet and extend horizontally from about 400 km up to 1500 km.

In order to understand the nature of the clouds – for example, if they were primarily composed of dust or icy particles – the team compared the images with atmospheric property predictions detailed by the Mars Climate Database. The database uses temperature and pressure information to indicate if either water or carbon dioxide clouds could be capable of forming at that time and altitude.

Mars Express

The team also looked at the weather report generated from images by NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and in some cases had additional corresponding observations obtained from other sensors on ESA’s Mars Express.

From the 18 studied in depth, most were concluded to be water-ice clouds, and one was attributed to a dust storm.

The high water-ice clouds seemed to depend on the position of the sun: they are present at sunrise and early afternoon, when temperatures are lower, allowing water-ice to condense. Later in the day, as the sunlight increases, the water-ice evaporates, and they dissipate.

Temperature variability and water vapour content according to the season, as well as atmospheric dynamics, can also play a role in the visible characteristics of the clouds.

Dust clouds over Mars

One event was attributed to a local dust storm in the northern hemisphere, which was also captured by images taken looking down on the surface by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The storm evolved rapidly, and took on arc shape with a front of about 1950 km on its outer edge and 730 km on its internal edge, and a width of 60–130 km. Limb observations by the webcam indicated the altitude was about 65 km.

“This long-term monitoring has allowed us to detect and measure the extent of dust and clouds over the limb of the planet, and study changes with a high cadence of imaging,” says Dmitri Titov, ESA’s Mars Express project scientist.

“We will continue to maintain the database with systematic observations from the webcam to provide wide views of atmospheric phenomena.”

Notes for editors:

“Limb clouds and dust on Mars from images obtained by the Visual Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard Mars Express,” A. Sánchez-Lavega et al is published in Icarus 299 (2018): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103517301501?via%3Dihub

All webcam images are freely available via the dedicated Flickr account, here: https://www.flickr.com/photos/esa_marswebcam/

Mars Climate Database: http://www-mars.lmd.jussieu.fr/mars/access.html

Mars Express: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Mars_Express

Mars Express overview: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Mars_Express_overview

Mars Express in-depth: http://sci.esa.int/marsexpress

ESA Planetary Science archive (PSA): http://www.rssd.esa.int/PSA

High Resolution Stereo Camera: http://berlinadmin.dlr.de/Missions/express/indexeng.shtml

HRSC data viewer: http://hrscview.fu-berlin.de/

Behind the lens... http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Mars_Express/Behind_the_lens

Frequently asked questions: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Mars_Express/Frequently_asked_questions

Text, Images, Credits: ESA/Markus Bauer/Dmitri Titov/University del Pais Vasco/Agustin Sánchez-Lavega/MARCI: NASA/JPL/MSSS; VMC: ESA , CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO.

Best regards, Orbiter.ch

lundi 16 octobre 2017

Fresh Findings From Cassini












NASA & ESA - Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn & Titan patch.

Oct. 16, 2017


Image above: Saturn looms in the foreground of this mosaic of Cassini images, taken by the spacecraft on May 28, 2017. The planet is adorned by ring shadows. The icy rings emerge from behind the planet. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute.

NASA's Cassini spacecraft ended its journey on Sept. 15 with an intentional plunge into the atmosphere of Saturn, but analysis continues on the mountain of data the spacecraft sent during its long life. Some of the Cassini team's freshest insights were presented during a news conference today at the American Astronomical Society Division for Planetary Science meeting in Provo, Utah.

Among the findings being shared:

-- Views from Cassini's Grand Finale show the beauty of the rings and demonstrate processes similar to those that form planets.

During Cassini's final months, the spacecraft's cameras captured views from within the gap between the planet and the rings, and the mission is releasing two new image mosaics showing the rings from that unique perspective. One view, from May 28, 2017, shows the rings emerging from behind the planet's hazy limb, while the planet itself is adorned with ring shadows. The other mosaic shows a panoramic view outward across the ringscape.


Animation above: Cassini used its Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph to capture this final view of ultraviolet auroral emissions in Saturn's north polar region on Sept. 14, 2017. Animation Credits: NASA/JPL/Univ. Colorado/Univ. Liege-LPAP.

Researchers also shared a new movie of Saturn's auroras in ultraviolet light that represents the final such view from the spacecraft's Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer.

In addition, Cassini participating scientist and imaging team associate Matt Tiscareno of SETI Institute, Mountain View, California, provided new details about the whimsically named ring features called propellers, which are wakes in the rings created by small, unseen moonlets. The propellers are analogous to baby planets forming in disks around young stars, as they obey similar physical processes.

Tiscareno said that, in its last images of the rings (taken the day before the spacecraft's plunge into Saturn), Cassini successfully imaged all six of the propellers whose orbits were being tracked over the last several years of the mission. These objects are named for famous aviators: Blériot, Earhart, Santos-Dumont, Sikorsky, Post and Quimby. During its Ring-Grazing Orbits -- the four months of close orbits that preceeded the mission's Grand Finale -- Cassini obtained images showing swarms of smaller propellers, astounding Tiscareno and colleagues.

(Click on the image for enlarge)

Image above: Cassini obtained this panoramic view of Saturn's rings on Sept. 9, 2017, just minutes after it passed through the ring plane. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute.

-- Cassini's electronic "nose" hit the jackpot, finding many surprises as it sniffed the gases in the previously unexplored space between the planet and the rings.

The spacecraft's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) returned a host of first-ever direct measurements of the components in Saturn’s upper atmosphere, which stretches almost to the rings. From these observations, the team sees evidence that molecules from the rings are raining down onto the atmosphere. This influx of material from the rings was expected, but INMS data show hints of ingredients more complex than just water, which makes up the bulk of the rings' composition. In particular, the instrument detected methane, a volatile molecule that scientists would not expect to be abundant in the rings or found so high in Saturn’s atmosphere. Cassini participating scientist and INMS team associate Mark Perry from the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland, says the team is busy analyzing data from the final, lowest-altitude passes, which show even more complexity and variability. The INMS observations complement those by Cassini's Cosmic Dust Analyzer instrument, which sampled solid particles in the gap during the Grand Finale.

-- Researchers continue trying to wrangle insights about the length of the planet's day from measurements of Saturn's magnetic field.

Michele Dougherty, leader of Cassini's Magnetometer team from Imperial College London, provided an update on the team's progress in trying to determine whether Saturn's magnetic field has a detectable tilt. One aim of their work is to determine the precise length of time for the planet's internal rotation, which would help researchers nail down the true length of the planet's day. Dougherty says the sensitivity of Cassini's magnetic field measurements nearly quadrupled over the course of the spacecraft's 22 Grand Finale orbits -- meaning that, if the tilt of Saturn's field is greater than 0.016 degrees, researchers should be able to detect it. An extremely small tilt is challenging to explain with scientists' current understanding of how planetary magnetic fields are generated, thus suggesting more sophisticated dynamics inside Saturn.

-- New theoretical research explains the forces that keep Saturn's rings from spreading out and dispersing. It turns out to be a group effort.

Key among the questions scientists hope to answer using data from Cassini are the age and origins of the rings. Theoretical modeling has shown that, without forces to confine them, the rings would spread out over hundreds of millions of years -- much younger than Saturn itself. This spreading happens because faster-moving particles that orbit closer to Saturn occasionally collide with slower particles on slightly farther-out orbits. When this happens, some momentum from the faster particles is transferred to the slower particles, speeding the latter up in their orbit and causing them to move farther outward. The inverse happens to the faster, inner particles.

Previous research had shown that gravitational tugs from the moon Mimas are solely responsible for halting the outward spread of Saturn's B ring -- that ring's outer edge is defined by the dark region known as the Cassini Division. Ring scientists had thought the small moon Janus was responsible for confining the outer edge of the A ring. But a new modeling study led by Radwan Tajeddine of Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, shows that the A ring's outward creep is kept in check by a confederation of moons, including Pan, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, Epimetheus and Mimas.

Cassini Grand Finale. Animation Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

The insight was made possible by Cassini, which provided scientists with high-resolution views of intricate waves in the rings, along with precise determinations of the masses of Saturn's moons. Analysis of these data led Tajeddine and colleagues to an understanding that a cumulative effect of waves from all these moons damps the outward transfer of momentum in the A ring and confines its edge.

Tajeddine will present these results in a poster at the DPS meeting, and they will be published Wednesday in the Astrophysical Journal.

"There are whole careers to be forged in the analysis of data from Cassini," said Linda Spilker, the mission's project scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. "In a sense, the work has only just begun."

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Italian Space Agency. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter.

More information about Cassini:

https://www.nasa.gov/cassini

https://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov

http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Cassini-Huygens

Images (mentioned), Animations (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Tony Greicius/JPL/Preston Dyches.

Best regards, Orbiter.ch

NASA Sees Hurricane Ophelia Lashing Ireland














NASA & NOAA - Suomi NPP Mission logo / NASA & JAXA - Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) patch.

Oct. 16, 2017

Ophelia (Atlantic Ocean)

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite provided a thermal view of the clouds in hurricane Ophelia as it lashed Ireland. The Global Precipitation Measurement mission core satellite provided a look at the rainfall that was affecting the Emerald Isle.


Image above: NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite took this thermal image of Hurricane Ophelia over Ireland on Oct. 16 at 02:54 UTC (Oct. 15 at 10:54 p.m. EDT). Image Credits: NOAA/NASA Goddard Rapid Response Team.

The Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core observatory passed directly above Hurricane Ophelia on October 14, 2017 at 12:56 p.m. EDT (1656 UTC) when it was a powerful category three on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale with sustained winds of close to 115 mph (100 knots).

GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) instruments collected data showing the locations of extremely heavy rainfall with the hurricane. GPM's radar unveiled intense downpours in the northeastern side of Ophelia's eye wall that were dropping rain at the extreme rate of over 8.4 inches (213 mm) per hour. GPM saw rainfall in other intense feeder bands producing rain at a rate of over 3.9 mm (100 mm) per hour.


Image above: GPM core observatory passed directly above Hurricane Ophelia on Oct. 14 at 12:56 p.m. EDT (1656 UTC) GPM's radar unveiled intense downpours in the northeastern side of Ophelia's eye wall that were dropping rain at the extreme rate of over 8.4 inches (213 mm) per hour. GPM saw rainfall in other intense feeder bands producing rain at a rate of over 3.9 mm (100 mm) per hour. Image Credits: NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce.

At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, a 3-D animation revealed the height of precipitation within hurricane Ophelia. The animation was produced by combining data from GPM's radar (DPR Ku band) with heights of cloud tops based on GOES-EAST satellite image temperatures.

The National Hurricane Center said that that the rainfall GPM observed would be affecting Ireland. Ophelia is expected to produce rainfall amounts of 2 to 3 inches (50 mm to 75 mm) with isolated totals near 4 inches (100 mm) through Tuesday across western Ireland and Scotland. Across eastern Ireland, rainfall amounts will average around 1 inch (25 mm) or less.

The 3-D animation showed storm tops in the northeastern side of Ophelia's eye wall (bright yellow) were shown by GPM's radar reaching heights of above 7.6 miles (12.4 km). The structure of hurricane Ophelia's eye wall is clearly shown with this close-up virtual flyby above the center of the tropical cyclone. GPM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA.

video
NASA Sees Powerful Storms and Heavy Rain in Hurricane Ophelia

Video above: This 3-D animation of data from the GPM core satellite on Oct. 15 showed storm tops in the northeastern side of Ophelia's eye wall (bright yellow) were shown by GPM's radar reaching heights of above 7.6 miles (12.4 km). The structure of hurricane Ophelia's eye wall is clearly shown with this close-up virtual flyby above the center of the tropical cyclone. Video Credits: NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce.

On Sunday, Oct. 14 at 11 p.m. EDT/AST, the National Hurricane Center in Miami, Florida issued the final advisory on Post-Tropical Cyclone Ophelia. The storm had transitioned from a hurricane to a post- tropical cyclone and was centered about 220 miles (355 km) southwest of Mizen Head, Ireland near 49.2 degrees north latitude and 13.3 degrees west longitude.

The post-tropical cyclone is moving toward the north near 44 mph (70 kph). On the forecast track, the center of the post-tropical cyclone will move near western Ireland on Monday, Oct. 16 and then near northern Scotland Monday night.

Maximum sustained winds were near 85 mph (140 kph) with higher gusts.  Weakening is forecast during the next couple of days, and the post-tropical cyclone is expected to dissipate near western Norway by Tuesday night, Oct. 17. The estimated minimum central pressure was 969 millibars.

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite measured temperatures of Ophelia's cloud tops as it passed overhead early on Oct. 16. The VIIRS instrument aboard captured a thermal image of Hurricane Ophelia over Ireland on Oct. 16 at 02:54 UTC (Oct. 15 at 10:54 p.m. EDT). Coldest cloud tops appeared northwest of the center, showing that the upper level of Ophelia was pushed from wind shear.

NHC forecaster Berg said "the last bit of deep convection near Ophelia's center has been sheared off well to the north, and the cyclone has acquired a definitive extratropical structure. Ophelia has completed its transition to an occluded low, with an attached warm front extending northeastward across Ireland and a cold front draped southeastward toward Spain and Portugal."

On Oct. 16, the U.K. Met Service Chief Forecaster Paul Gundersen said that Ophelia weakened on Sunday night and was no longer classified as a hurricane. However, the UK Met Service expects hurricane force winds of up to 80 mph across Northern Ireland, and some areas bordering the Irish Sea.

National Severe Weather Warnings are in place for Northern Ireland, and other western and northern parts of Britain for Oct, 16, Monday afternoon and evening. For updated forecasts and warnings, visit: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/

Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership): http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NPP/main/index.html

GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement): http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/GPM/main/index.html

Images (mentioned), Video (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, By Rob Gutro/Hal Pierce.

Greetings, Orbiter.ch

Hubble, Integral, Fermi, LIGO & Virgo Interferometer observes source of gravitational waves for the first time













 
ESA - Hubble Space Telescope logo / ESA - Integral Mission patch / NASA - Fermi Gamma-ray Telescope logo.

16 October 2017

Hubble observes first kilonova

The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has observed for the first time the source of a gravitational wave, created by the merger of two neutron stars. This merger created a kilonova — an object predicted by theory decades ago — that ejects heavy elements such as gold and platinum into space. This event also provides the strongest evidence yet that short duration gamma-ray bursts are caused by mergers of neutron stars. This discovery is the first glimpse of multi-messenger astronomy, bringing together both gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation.

On 17 August 2017 the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the Virgo Interferometer both alerted astronomical observers all over the globe about the detection of a gravitational wave event named GW170817 [1]. About two seconds after the detection of the gravitational wave, ESA’s INTEGRAL telescope and NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope observed a short gamma-ray burst in the same direction.

Artist’s impression of two neutron stars merging

In the night following the initial discovery, a fleet of telescopes started their hunt to locate the source of the event. Astronomers found it in the lenticular galaxy NGC 4993, about 130 million light-years away. A point of light was shining where nothing was visible before and this set off one of the largest multi-telescope observing campaigns ever — among these telescopes was the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope [2].

Several different teams of scientists used Hubble over the two weeks following the gravitational wave event alert to observe NGC 4993. Using Hubble’s high-resolution imaging capabilities they managed to get the first observational proof for a kilonova, the visible counterpart of the merging of two extremely dense objects — most likely two neutron stars [3]. Such mergers were first suggested more than 30 years ago but this marks the first firm observation of such an event [4]. The distance to the merger makes the source both the closest gravitational wave event detected so far and also one of the closest gamma-ray burst sources ever seen.

NGC 4993 seen with Hubble

“Once I saw that there had been a trigger from LIGO and Virgo at the same time as a gamma-ray burst I was blown away,” recalls Andrew Levan of the University of Warwick, who led the Hubble team that obtained the first observations. “When I realised that it looked like neutron stars were involved, I was even more amazed. We’ve been waiting a long time for an opportunity like this!”

Hubble captured images of the galaxy in visible and infrared light, witnessing a new bright object within NGC 4993 that was brighter than a nova but fainter than a supernova. The images showed that the object faded noticeably over the six days of the Hubble observations. Using Hubble’s spectroscopic capabilities the teams also found indications of material being ejected by the kilonova as fast as one-fifth of the speed of light.

Wide-field view of NGC 4993 (ground-based view)

“It was surprising just how closely the behaviour of the kilonova matched the predictions,” said Nial Tanvir, professor at the University of Leicester and leader of another Hubble observing team. “It looked nothing like known supernovae, which this object could have been, and so confidence was soon very high that this was the real deal.”

Connecting kilonovae and short gamma-ray bursts to neutron star mergers has so far been difficult, but the multitude of detailed observations following the detection of the gravitational wave event GW170817 has now finally verified these connections.

The changing brightness and colour of the kilonova seen in NGC 4993

“The spectrum of the kilonova looked exactly like how theoretical physicists had predicted the outcome of the merger of two neutron stars would appear,” says Levan. “It ties this object to the gravitational wave source beyond all reasonable doubt.”

video
Neutron star merger animation ending with kilonova explosion

The infrared spectra taken with Hubble also showed several broad bumps and wiggles that signal the formation of some of the heaviest elements in nature. These observations may help solve another long-standing question in astronomy: the origin of heavy chemical elements, like gold and platinum [5]. In the merger of two neutron stars, the conditions appear just right for their production.

The implications of these observations are immense. As Tanvir explains: “This discovery has opened up a new approach to astronomical research, where we combine information from both electromagnetic light and from gravitational waves. We call this multi-messenger astronomy — but until now it has just been a dream!”

video
Zoom on NGC 4993

Levan concludes: “Now, astronomers won’t just look at the light from an object, as we’ve done for hundreds of years, but also listen to it. Gravitational waves provide us with complementary information from objects which are very hard to study using only electromagnetic waves. So pairing gravitational waves with electromagnetic radiation will help astronomers understand some of the most extreme events in the Universe.”

Notes:

[1] The ripples in spacetime known as gravitational waves are created by moving masses, but only the most intense waves, created by rapid speed changes of very massive objects, can be detected by the current generation of detectors. Gravitational waves detectable from Earth are generated by collisions of massive objects, such as when two black holes or neutron stars merge.

[2] Next to Hubble, ESO’s Very Large Telescope, ESO’s New Technology Telescope, ESO’s VLT Survey Telescope, the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, the Rapid Eye Mount (REM) telescope, the Swope Telescope, the LCO .4-meter telescope, the American DECcam, and the Pan-STAARS survey all helped to identify and observe the event and its after-effects over a wide range of wavelengths.

[3] A neutron star forms when the core of a massive star (above eight times the mass of the Sun) collapses. This process is so violent that it crushes protons and electrons together to form subatomic particles called neutrons. They are supported against further collapse only by neutron degeneracy pressure. This makes neutron stars the smallest and densest stars known.

[4] In 2013 astronomers published results on the evidence for a kilonova, associated with a short gamma-ray burst. The observations in 2013 were far less conclusive, and hence more controversial, than the new results.

[5] These observations pin down the formation of elements heavier than iron through nuclear reactions within high-density stellar objects, known as r-process nucleosynthesis, something which was only theorised before.

More information:

The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA.

The extensive list of team members involved in the discovery and analysis of this discovery can be found here.

Links:

Hubblecast 103: Hubble observes source of gravitational waves for the first time: http://www.spacetelescope.org/videos/heic1717a/

FAQ: http://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/releases/pdf/heic1717-faq.pdf

LIGO press release: http://www.caltech.edu/news/ligo-and-virgo-make-first-detection-gravitational-waves-produced-colliding-neutron-stars-80082

ESO press release: https://www.eso.org/public/news/eso1733/

Hubblesite release: http://hubblesite.org/news_release/news/2017-41

LIGO: https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/

Virgo: http://www.virgo-gw.eu/

ESA Integral release: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Integral_sees_blast_travelling_with_gravitational_waves

Paper 1: “The emergence of a lanthanide-rich kilonova following the merger of two neutron stars”, by N. R. Tanvir et al. in ApJL: http://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/releases/science_papers/heic1717/heic1717a.pdf

Paper 2: “The environment of the binary neutron star merger GW170817”, by A. J. Levan et al. in ApJL: http://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/releases/science_papers/heic1717/heic1717b.pdf

Paper 3: “Discovery of the X-ray counterpart to the gravitational wave event GW170817” by E. Troja et al. in Nature: http://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/releases/science_papers/heic1717/heic1717c.pdf

Paper 4: “Illuminating Gravitational Waves: A Concordant Picture of Photons from a Neutron Star Merger” by M. M. Kalila: http://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/releases/science_papers/heic1717/heic1717d.pdf

Paper 5: “The Distance to NGC 4993 — The host galaxy of the gravitational wave event GW17017”, by J. Hjorth et al. in ApJL: http://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/releases/science_papers/heic1717/heic1717e.pdf

Related links:

ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT): http://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/paranal-observatory/vlt/

Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA): http://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/alma/

MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope: https://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/lasilla/mpg22/

Rapid Eye Mount (REM): http://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/lasilla/rem/

Swope Telescope: http://obs.carnegiescience.edu/swope

LCO .4-meter telescope: https://lco.global/observatory/0.4m/

DECcam: http://www.ctio.noao.edu/noao/node/1033

Pan-STAARS: https://panstarrs.stsci.edu/

ESA’s INTEGRAL telescope: http://sci.esa.int/integral/

NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope: https://fermi.gsfc.nasa.gov/

NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope: http://www.spacetelescope.org/

Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO): https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/

Virgo Interferometer: https://www.ego-gw.it/public/about/whatIs.aspx

Images, Videos, Text, Credit: NASA, ESA, ESO, Tanvir et al.//L. Calçada/M. Kornmesser/Digitized Sky Survey 2. Acknowledgement: Davide De Martin/Music: Johan B. Monell (www.johanmonell.com)/NASA, ESA, and J. DePasquale, and G. Bacon (STScI); Acknowledgment: A. Mellinger; Digitized Sky Survey (DSS), STScI/AURA.

Best regards, Orbiter.ch